Having covered using the present tense, I thought it would be useful to have a look at the past tense before moving on to verbs.
The same structures seem to apply, instead of using “ta”, “va” is used.
|va mee||I was||Va mee gynsaghey||I was learning|
|v’ou||You were||V’ou gynsaghey||You were learning||Used when speaking to a single person for politeness|
|v’eh||He was||V’eh gynsaghey||He was learning|
|v’ee||She was||V’ee gynsaghey||She was learning|
|va shin||We were||Va shin gynsaghey||We were learning|
|va shiu||You were||Va shiu gynsaghey||You were learning||Used to address more than one person|
|va’d||They were||Va’d gynsaghey||They were learning|
The negative form introduces “row” (as in “cow”) which means “was”, though I’m not sure if you could use “row” on the affirmative form, for example, “row mee” gynsaghey”.
Also note that the singular of “You were not” has changed its form. This is to avoid confusion between “r’ou” and “row” when speaking as they both sound similar. I guess one should use the “uss” form to avoid any confusion.
|cha row mee||I was not||Cha row mee gynsaghey||I was not learning|
|cha row uss||You were not||Cha row uss gynsaghey||You were not learning||Used when speaking to a single person for politeness|
|cha row eh||He was not||Cha row eh gynsaghey||He was not learning|
|cha row ee||She was not||Cha row ee gynsaghey||She was not learning|
|cha row shin||We were not||Cha row shin gynsaghey||We were not learning|
|cha row shiu||You were not||Cha row shiu gynsaghey||You were not learning||Used to address more than one person|
|cha row ad||They were not||Cha row ad gynsaghey||They were not learning|
Updated 25 September …
If you need to use the “do” form, the table below shows some examples. I distinguish the two by another of my silly rules:
- row = was – “W” is in both “row” and “was”
- ren = did – Totally no pattern!
|cha ren mee||I did not||Cha ren mee ynsaghey||I did not learn|
|cha ren uss||You did not||Cha ren uss ynsaghey||You did not learn||Used when speaking to a single person for politeness|
|cha ren eh||He did not||Cha ren eh ynsaghey||He did not learn|
|cha ren ee||She did not||Cha ren ee ynsaghey||She did not learn|
|cha ren shin||We did not learn||Cha ren shin ynsaghey||We did not learn|
|cha ren shiu||You did not||Cha ren shiu ynsaghey||You did not learn||Used to address more than one person|
|Cha ren ad||They did not||Cha ren ad ynsaghey||They did not learn|
So I guess that it follows that as you can use “Nagh row” for “Wasn’t?”, you could use “Nagh ren” for “Didn’t?”.
|nagh ren mee?||Didn’t I?||Nagh ren mee ynsaghey?||Didn’t I learn?|
|nagh ren uss?||Didn’t you?||Nagh ren uss ynsaghey||Didn’t you learn?||Used when speaking to a single person for politeness|
|nagh ren eh?||Didn’t he?||Nagh ren eh ynsaghey?||Didn’t he learn?|
|nagh ren ee?||Didn’t she?||Nagh ren ee ynsaghey?||Didn’t she learn?|
|nagh ren shin?||Didn’t we learn?||Nagh ren shin ynsaghey?||Didn’t we learn?|
|Nagh ren shiu?||Didn’t we?||Nagh ren shiu ynsaghey?||Didn’t you learn?||Used to address more than one person|
|Nagh ren ad?||Didn’t they?||Nagh ren ad ynsaghey?||Didn’t they learn?|
I think that completes the past tense in the simplest form. I’m told that it is possible to man-handle your Manx and use these simpler forms rather than looking for the past tense verb of each stem when starting out. I’m counting on it.